Yes. Whoever is to receive the Blessed Eucharist must abstain from all food and drink, with the exception of water and medicine, for an hour before receiving Holy Communion (not the beginning of Mass). The elderly, anyone suffering illness, and those who care for them are exempt from this requirement.
As we are both body and soul, we should be disposed in both to receive Communion. Spiritual preparation involves dying to self and dying to sin and being in the state of grace. Physical preparation involves dying to self and the things of the world through fasting.
Acts 13:2; Catechism 1384-1390.